The Relationship between Level of Education and State-level
Presidential Outcomes, 1972-2012
Note: Changes in both variables are measured from 1972-1980 (averaged) to 2004-2012 (averaged).
Adapted from Altered States.
1The partial correlations control for southern regional effects during the Carter (1976, 1980) and Clinton (1992, 1996) candidacies, as well as presidential and vic-presidential home state advantages.